Chapter 5-6 Reading Notes


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Chapter 5

  • Effective public relations is a process, first beginning with research.
  • Research is a form of listening
  • Questions that should be asked before formulating a research design:
  •               What is the problem?
  •               What kind of information is needed?
  •               How ill the results of the research be used?
  •              What specific public (or publics) should be researched?
  •             Should the organization do the research in-house or hire an outside consultant?
  •              How will the research data be analyzed, reported, or applied?
  •            How soon will the results be needed?
  •           How much will the research cost?
  • Ways that public relations professionals use research:
  1. To achieve credibility with management
  2. to define audiences and segment publics
  3. to formulate strategy
  4. to test messages
  5. to help management keep in touch
  6. to prevent crisis
  7. to monitor the competition
  8. to sway public opinion
  9. to generate publicity
  10. to measure success
  • 3 different approaches to research:
  1. secondary research
  2. qualitative research
  3. quantitative research based on scientific sampling
  • Common reference sources used by public relations professionals:
  1. The Statistical Abstract of the United States- summarizes census information
  2. The Gallup pull and the Gallup index-provide an index of public opinion on a variety of issues
  3. American Demographics: reports on population shifts and lifestyle trends
  4. Simmons’ Media and Markets- an extensive annual survey of households on product usage by brand and exposure to various media
  • Content Analysis- the systematic and objective counting or categorizing of information
  • Different types of interviews that can be conducted within content analysis:
  1. Intercept interview- short interviews that are often conducted simply at a shopping mall or at a meeting
  2. Convenience polls- another name for a intercept interview because people are literally intercepted in public places and asked their opinion
  • Focus Groups- A good alternative to individual interviews. This is widely used in advertising, marketing, and public relations.
  • Quantitative Research
  • Random sampling- every one in the target audience has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey
  • How to reach respondents of questionnaires:
  1. Mail questionnaires
  2. Telephone surveys
  3. personal interviews
  4. omnibus surveys
  5. web and e-mail surveys

Chapter 6

  • Program Planning- This is the second step in the public relations process, following research
  • The best planning is systemic:
  • Gathering information
  • analyzing it
  • creatively applying it for the specific purpose of attaining an objective
  • 8 Basic elements that are included in public relations plans:
  1. situation
  2. objectives
  3. audience
  4. strategy
  5. tactics
  6. calendar/timetable
  7. budget
  8. evaluation
  • Situation- understand the situation that let to the conclusion that a public relations program was ready
  • Objectives- Once the situation is understood, the next step is to establish objectives for the program
  • These include: information objectives and motivational objectives
  • Audience-everything that you are working towards should be directed towards a defined audience
  • Strategy- A somewhat broad statement describing how the objective is going to be achieved
  • Tactics- the tactical part of the plan
  • Calendar/timetable- Develop a timetable for the campaign or program
  • Budget- How much can the client afford. Then write a plan from that
  • Evaluation- evaluate the stated objective and make sure it will work

Public Relations strategies and tactics


About relating2thepublic

I am 21 years old and attend Southeastern University where I am pursuing my degree in journalism and public relations. I have many dreams and passions and I have decided to begin taking action now in accomplishing these dreams. I believe that everyone can be great, but they must persevere through struggles. I hope that my blog is an encouragement to you!

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